• Urbanization is the process of cities growing. Although the term “civilization” connotes more large and abstract ideas, it actually refers to a particular stage of human culture that is frequently connected to writing and cities.
  • Daya Ram Sahni began work on the excavations at Harappa in 1920, and R. D. Banerji began work on the excavations at Mohenjodaro in 1921.
  •  John Marshall, Director General of the Archaeological Survey, officially announced the finding of the Indus or Harappan civilization in 1924.
  • The Indus Valley and its tributaries are where archaeologists found the first remnants of ancient civilization. As a result, it was called the “Indus civilization” or “Indus valley civilization.”
  • Indus valley civilisation is also known as Harappan civilisation.
  • There are currently roughly 1,022 Harappan sites, of which 406 are in Pakistan and 616 are in India. Only 97 of these have been dug up thus yet.

CHRONOLOGY OF HARRAPAN CIVILISATION PERIOD

  1. Pre Harappan period –  c. 7000-c.5500BCE
  2. Early Harappan period-  c.5500-2800BCE
  3. Mature Harappan period- c.2800-1900 BCE

  4. Late Harappan period-  c.1900-c.1500 BCE

IMPORTANT SITES OF INDUS VALLEYCIVILISATION

More than 1000 sites of the Indus Valley Civilization have been unearthed in various regions of India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. India is home to the majority of the sites of this thousand-year-old civilization. Let us discuss a few major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization one by one.

There are seven important cities in the Indus valley civilization

  • Mohanjodaro
  • Harappa
  • Kalibangan
  • Lothal
  • Chanhudaru
  • Dholavira
  • Banawali
  • Rakhigarhi
  • Surkotada

MOHENJODARO

It is discovered by R.D. Banerjee in 1922.

Major archaeological findings of Mohenjo Daro

  • The great bath
  • Citadel
  • Bronze statue of dancing girl
  • Bronze buffalo
  • Steatite statue of a bearded priest
  • Seal of Pashupati
  • The great granary
  • Assembly hall
  • 3 cylindrical-shaped seals similar to Mesopotamian ones.
  • Terracotta toys
  • A piece of woven cloth

HARAPPA

It is discovered by Daya Ram Sahani in 1921.

Major archaeological findings which have been unearthed from Harappa

  • Two sandstone statues depicting human anatomy
  • Ekkas (Bullock carts)
  • Two rows of six Granaries
  • workmen quarters
  • Bronze sculpture of a dog chasing a deer
  • Red sandstone male torso
  • Sculpture of mother goddess
  • Pottery with an Indus script on it.
  • Faience slag
  • Terracotta figurines

KALIBANGAN

Discovered by Ghose in 1953.

Things that were unearthed from Kalibangan city

  • Double citadel
  • Burnt bangles
  • Fire altars
  • Sun-dried bricks
  • Ploughed fields
  • Wooden plough
  • Bones of camel
  • Lower fortified town
  • Earthquake evidence
  • Copper ox
  • Small circular pits with large urns and pottery

LOTHAL

Discovered by R. Rao in 1953.

Archaeological findings from Lothal

  • Port and dockyard
  • Single citadel
  • An exclusive feature of lothal is that it has a house with an entrance facing the street
  • Couple burial
  • The seal with the story of a clever fox
  • Mesopotamian seal made of ivory
  • Rice husk
  • Chess game
  • Terracotta figures of horse and ship

CHANHUDARO

Discovered by N.G. Majumdar in 1931.

Archaeological findings from Chanhudaro

  • Traces of bead maker’s factory
  • The usage of kajal and lipstick was discovered
  • Inkpot
  • Impression of a cart with a seated driver

DHOLAVIRA

Discovered by R.S. Bisht in 1935.

Some of the major artefacts excavated from Dholavira

  • Signboard
  • Large water reservoirs and embankments
  • Dams
  • A figure of a chariot tied to a pair of bullocks was driven by nude men.
  • Usage of rocks in construction.

BANAWALI

Discovered by R.S. Bisht in 1974.

  • The artefacts unearthed from Banawali
  • Barley grains of good quality
  • Toy plough
  • The settlement was oval shaped
  • Burnished grayware which were decorated with motifs
  • Ivory comb
  • Tortoiseshell
  • Human figures of both males and females
  • S-shaped jars, painted earthen pots, cooking vessels etc.

RAKHIGARHI

Discovered by Amarendra Nath in between 1997-2000.

Major archaeological findings at Rakhigarhi

  • Bronze toys
  • Terracotta statues
  • Granary with 7 rectangular chambers. (It dates back to the mature Harappan phase i.e. 2600 BCE to 2000 BCE).
  • Traces of cotton cloth on silver and bronze artefacts

SURKOTADA

Discovered by J.P. Joshi in 1964.

Major archaeological findings from Surkotada

  • Horse, elephant and wolf bones
  • Stone fortification

 

 

 

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